Pietro della Vallle, a Roman of patrician birth, on the plant called ‘’ladanum’’:
I landed again. The consul gave me a piece of virgin Ladanum, pure and unadulterated, as it is gathered. It is found plentifully in Cyprus, and as I wished to know what it is and how collected, I asked well informed persons and learned that ladanum is secreted from the dew of heaven, exactly like manna, and is found and gathered on the leaves of a small plant, which is generally not higher than a palm and a half or two palms, with small leaves. They boil the stuff they collect, and when boiled it is flexible like wax, and is rolled out between the palms into lengths like tapers, and these they twist together into the shape of the piece which I keep by me as a specimen. Ladanum is black, with a pleasant, strongly aromatic odour: in our countries it is mixed with other substances to make an excellent perfume, and is perhaps used in medicine.